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Thanks.
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Dziekuje.
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We're used to seeing arithmetic expressions written in "infix
notation," where an operator appears between its two operands: "3 +
5". Traditional calculators use an entry method based on this
notation, where the first number is entered, followed by the operator,
then the second number, and finally a key to tell the calculator to
produce the result: "3", "+", "5", "=". The display of an infix
calculator typically shows the last number entered, or the result of
the last calculation.
In the 1970's, Hewlett-Packard introduced a pocket calculator using
Reverse Polish Notation (RPN), also known as postfix notation. In
postfix notation, the operator appears after its operands: "3 5 +".
This expression would be keyed into an RPN calculator as follows: "3",
"Enter", "5", "Enter", "+". The calculator stores the values on a
stack as they are entered; when the operator is keyed, the values are
popped from the stack, the operation is performed, and the result is
pushed back onto the stack. The display of an RPN calculator
typically shows the top few levels of the stack for easy manipulation
of multiple values.
RPN calculators are particularly useful for evaluating expressions
with multiple parts, such as "(3 + 5) * 2 / (2 + 3)". With a typical
infix calculator, the results of one part would have to be remembered
or written down so the calculator can be cleared to calculate the
other part, then finally combined with the first part. (Most infix
calculators provide a "memory" feature that stores one value for later
recall.) With an RPN calculator, the expression could be keyed as it
would be written in postfix notation: "3 5 + 2 * 2 3 + /".
For this quiz, we'll implement an interactive RPN calculator.
The calculator will accept lines of input on standard input. Each
line will contain zero or more terms separated by spaces. A term may
be a number or an operator. Each term will be evaluated in order,
from left to right. If the term is a number, the value will be pushed
onto the stack. If the term is an operator, the operation will be
performed. After a line of input has been processed, the stack will
be printed to standard output in reverse order, with the top of the
stack appearing last.
The following example shows lines of user input after the "> " prompt.
Stack printouts use numbered lines, with 0 representing the top of the
stack.
The number 3 is entered, pushing it onto an empty stack:
> 3
0: 3
The number 5 is entered, resulting in a stack of two values:
> 5
1: 3
0: 5
The plus operator takes the top two elements off of the stack, adds them
together, and puts the result onto the stack:
> +
0: 8
A number and an operator both appear on the same line. The number is
pushed onto the stack, and the operator is performed, in this case 8 *
2.
> 2 *
0: 16
Two numbers are pushed, followed by two operators. The first
operator, "+", pops the 3 and the 2, adds them together, then pushes
the result (5) onto the stack. The second operator, "/", pops the 5
that was just pushed and the 16 that was already on the stack, and
performs the division. (In infix notation, this division would be
written as "16 / 5".)
> 2 3 + /
0: 3.2
Operators that require one value ("unary operators") take the topmost
element off the stack, perform their function on the value, and push
the result back onto the stack. Operators that require two values
("binary operators") take the top two elements off the stack and
perform their function using the "earliest" value as the first term
and the "latest" value as the second. For example, "20 5 /" pushes
20, pushes 5 (resulting in the stack 1: 25, 0: 5), then pops 5, pops
20, divides 20 by 5, then pushes the result (4) back onto the stack.
If there are not enough elements on the stack to perform an operation,
the calculator should report an error and stop processing the line.
The calculator should support at least the following operators, whose
functions are similar to those in Perl: + - * / % **
The calculator should support the following stack manipulation commands:
drop pops the top element and discards it.
swap swaps the 0th (top) and 1st elements in the stack.
clear removes all values from the stack.
dup duplicate the top element, push it onto the stack
This specification lends itself easily to extension. Feel free to add
features you think might make the calculator more useful. A few
ideas:
* Support for additional Perl builtin operations:
& | ~ abs int cos sin exp log sqrt atan2
* Accept numbers entered in hexadecimal beginning in "0x", binary
beginning in "0b", or octal beginning in "0".
* Support different display modes for how the stack is printed, with
commands to switch modes. "dec", "bin", "oct" and "hex" would
switch the display to decimal, binary, octal or hexadecimal,
respectively. (These commands do not affect the contents of the
stack.)
* An "N roll" command, which moves the Nth element in the stack to the
0th position, pushing the other elements up (where N is a value
popped from the top of the stack). It is an error if there are not
N elements in the stack. For example:
> 10 20 30 40 50
4: 10
3: 20
2: 30
1: 40
0: 50
> 2 roll
4: 10
3: 20
2: 40
1: 50
0: 30
Similarly, "N rolld" would move the 0th element in the stack to the
Nth position, dropping the other elements down.